FORUM: Internetzeitschrift des Landesverbandes für Kinder
in Adoptiv und Pflegefamilien S-H e.V. (KiAP) und der Arbeitsge-
meinschaft für Sozialberatung und Psychotherapie (AGSP)


Artikel / Jahrgang 2001


The Effects of Early Relational Trauma on Right Brain Development, Affect Regulation, and Infant Mental Health (Teil 3)

von Allan N. Schore (2001)
zurück zu Teil 2

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences,
University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine



Abercrombie, H.C., Schaefer, S.M., Larson, C.L., Oakes, T.R., Lindgren, K.A., & Holden, J.E. (1998). Metabolic rate in the right amygdala predicts negative affect in depressed patients. NeuroReport, 9, 3301-3307.

Adamec, R. (1990). Kindling, anxiety and limbic epilepsy: human and animal perspectives. In J.A. Wada (Ed.), Kindling 4, (pp. 329-341). New York: Raven Press.

Adamec, R. (1997). Transmitter systems involved in neural plasticity underlying increased anxiety and defense - implications for understanding anxiety following traumatic stress. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 21, 755-765.

Adamec, R.E. (1998). Evidence that NMDA-dependent limbic neural plasticity in the right hemisphere mediates pharmacological stressor (FG-7142)-induced lasting increases in anxiety-like behavior. Study 1--Role of NMDA receptors in efferent transmission from the cat amygdala. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 12, 122-128.

Adamec, R.E. (1999). Evidence that limbic neural plasticity in the right hemisphere mediates partial kindling induced lasting increases in anxiety-like behavior: effects of low frequency stimulation (Quenching?) on long-term potentiation of amygdala efferents and behavior following kindling. Brain Research, 839, 133-152.

Adamec, R.E., & McKay, D. (1993). Amygdala kindling, anxiety, and corticotopin releasing factor (CRF). Physiology and Behavior, 54, 423-431.

Adams, J.H., Graham, D.I., Scott, G., Parker, L.S., & Doyle, D. (1980). Brain damage in non-missile head injury. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 33, 1132-1145.

Aitken, K.J., & Trevarthen, C. (1997). Self/other organization in human psychological development. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 653-677.

Allen, J.G., & Coyne, L. (1995). Dissociation and vulnerability to psychotic experience. The Dissociative Experiences Scale and the MMPI-2. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 183, 615-622.

Almli, C.R., & Fisher, R.S. (1985). Postnatal development of sensory influences on neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus of the rat. Developmental Brain Research,18, 13-26.

Altman, J. (1997). Early beginnings for adult brain pathology. Trends in Neuroscience, 20, 143-144.

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM III-R) (4th ed. rev). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Anders, T.F. & Zeanah, C.H. (1984). Early infant development from a biological point of view. In J.D. Call, E. Galenson, & R.L. Tyson (Eds.), Frontiers of infant psychiatry, Vol. 2, (pp. 55-69). New York: Basic Books.

Anderson, S.W., Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D., & Damasio, A.R. (1999). Impairment of social and moral behavior related to early damage in human prefrontal cortex. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 1032-1037.

Antelman, S.M., Caggiula, A.R., Gershon, S., Edwards, D.J., Austin, M.C., Kiss, S., & Kocan, D. (1997). Stressor-induced oscillation. A possible model of the bidirectional symptoms in PTSD. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 821, 296-304.

Arnsten, A.F.T. & Goldman-Rakic, P.S. (1998). Noise stress impairs prefrontal cortical cognitive function in monkeys. Evidence for a hyperdopaminergic mechanism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 362-368.

Aston-Jones, G., Valentino, R.J., Van Bockstaele, E.J., & Meyerson, A.T. (1996). Locus coeruleus, stress, and PTSD: neurobiological and clinical parallels. In M.M. Marburg (Ed.), Catecholamine function in PTSD, (pp. 17-62). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Bachevalier, J. (1994). Medial temporal lobe structures and autism: a review of clinical and experimental findings. Neuropsychologia, 32, 627-648.

Barach, P.M.M. (1991). Multiple personality disorder as an attachment disorder. Dissociation, IV, 117-123.

Barbas, H. (1995). Anatomic basis of cognitive-emotional interactions in the primate prefrontal cortex. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 19, 499-510.

Barnet, A.B., & Barnet, R.J. (1998). The youngest minds: parenting and genes in the development of intellect and emotion. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Barnett, D., Hill Hunt, K., Butler, C.M., McCaskill , J.W., Kaplan-Estrin, M., & Pipp-Siegel, S. (1999). Indices of attachment disorganiztion with neurological and non-neurological problems. In J. Solomon, J & George, C. (Eds.), Attachment disorganization (pp. 189-212). New York: Guilford Press.

Baron-Cohen, S. (1995). Mindblindness: an essay on autism and theory of mind. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Baron-Cohen, S., Ring, H.A., Bullmore, E.T., Wheelwright, S., Ashwin, C., & Williams, S.C.R. (2000). The amygdala theory of autism. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 24, 355-364.

Bear, M.F., & Singer, W. (1986). Modulation of visual cortical plasticity by acetylcholine and noradrenaline. Nature, 320, 172-176.

Beebe, B. (2000). Coconstructing mother-infant distress: the microsychrony of maternal impingement and infant avoidance in the face-to-face encounter. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 20, 412-440.

Benes, F.M. (1994). Developmental changes in stress adaptation in relation to psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 723-739.

Berntson, G.G., Cacioppo, J. T., & Quigley, K.S. (1991). Autonomic determinism: The modes of autonomic control, the doctrine of autonomic space, and the laws of autonomic constraint. Psychological Review, 98, 459-487.

Bion, W.R. (1962). Learning from experience. London: Heinemann.

Biver, F., Goldman, S., Delvenne, V., Luxen, A., De Maertaer, V., Hubain, P., Mendlewicz, J., & Lotstra, F. (1994). Frontal and parietal metabolic disturbances in unipolar depression. Biological Psychiatry, 36, 3811-388.

Biver, F., Wikler, D., Lotstra, F., Damhaut, P., Goldman, S., & Mendlewicz, J. (1997). Serotonin 5-HT2 receptor imaging in major depression: focal changes in orbito-insular cortex. British Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 444-448.

Blair, R.J.R., Morris, J.S., Frith, C.D., Perrett, D.I., & Dolan, R.J. (1999). Dissociable neural responses to facial expressions of sadness and anger. Brain, 122, 883-893.

Blair, R.J.R., & Cipolotti, L. (2000). Impaired social response reversal. A case of acquired sociopathy. Brain, 123, 1122-1141.

Blumberg, H.P., Stern, E., Ricketts, S., Martinez, D., de Asis, J., White, T., Epstein, J., Isenberg, N., McBride, A., Kemperman, I., Emmerich, S., Dhawan, V., Eidelberg, D., Kocis, J.H., & Silbersweig, D.A. (1999). Rostral and orbital prefrontal cortex dysfunction in the manic state of bipolar disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1986-1988.

Boris, N.W., & Zeanah, C.H. (1999). Disturbances amd disorders of attachment in infancy: an overview. Infant Mental Health Journal, 20, 1-9.

Bowers, D., Bauer, R.M., & Heilman, K.M. (1993). The nonverbal affect lexicon: Theoretical perspectives from neuropsychological studies of affect perception. Neuropsychology, 7, 433-444.

Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss. Vol. 1: Attachment. New York: Basic Books.

Bowlby, J. (1978). Attachment theory and its therapeutic implications. In S.C. Feinstein & P.L. Giovacchini (Eds.), Adolescent psychiatry: Developmental and clinical studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Bowling, A.C., Mutisya, E.M., Walker, L.C., Price, D.L., Cork, L.C., & Beal, M.F. (1993). Age-dependent impairment of mitochondrial function in primate brain. Journal of Neurochemistry, 60, 1964-1967.

Bradley, S. (2000). Affect regulation and the development of psychopathology. New York: Guilford Press.

Brake, W.G., Sullivan, R.M., & Gratton, A. (2000). Perinatal distress leads to lateralized medial prefrontal cortical dopamine hypofunction in adult rats. Journal of Neuroscience, 20, 5538-5543.

Braun, C.M.J., Archambault, M-A., Daigneault, S., & Larocque, C. (2000). Right body performance decrement in congenitally dyslexic children and left body side performance decrement in congenitally hyperactive children. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology, 13, 89-100.

Brazzelli, M., Colombo, N., Della Sala, S., & Spinnler, H. (1994). Spared and impaired cognitive abilities after bilateral frontal damage. Cortex, 30, 27-51.

Bremner, J.D., Innis, R.B., Ng, C.K., Staib, L.H., Salomon, R.M., Bronen, R.A., Duncan, J., Southwick, S.M., Krystal, J.H., Rich, D., Zubal, G., Dey, H., Soufer, R., & Charney, D.S. (1997). Positron emission tomography measurement of cerebral metabolic correlates of yohimbe administration in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 246-254.

Breuer, J., & Freud, S. (1893). Studies on hysteria. Standard Edition, 2, 3-305. London: Hogarth Press, 1958.

Bromberg, P. (1991). On knowing one’s patient inside out: The aesthetics of unconscious communication. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 1, 399-422.

Brothers, L. (1997). Friday’s footprint. New York: Oxford University Press.

Brown, M.R., Fisher, L.A., Spiess, J., Rivier, C., Rivier, J., & Vale, W. (1982). Corticotropin-releasing factor: actions on the sympathetic nervous system and metabolism. Endocrinology, 111, 928-931.

Brown, R., & Kulik, J. (1977). Flashbulb memories. Cognition, 5, 73-79.

Brownstein, M.J. (1989). Neuropeptides. In G. Siegel, B. Agranoff, R.W. Albers, & P. Molinoff (Eds.), Basic neurochemistry (4th ed., pp. 287-309). New York: Raven Press.

Bruer, J.T. (1999). The myth of the first three years. A new understanding of early brain development and lifelong learning. New York: Free Press.

Burgoyne, R.D., Pearce, I.A., & Cambray-Deakin, M.A. (1988). N -Methyl-D-aspartate raises cytosolic calcium concentration in rat cerebellar granule cells in culture. Neuroscience Letters, 91, 47-52.

Butler, P.D., Weiss, J.M., Stout, J.C., & Nemeroff, C.B. (1990). Corticotropin-releasing factor produces fear-enhancing and behavioral activating effects following infusion into the locus coeruleus. Journal of Neuroscience, 10, 176-183.

Calkins, S.D., & Fox, N.A. (1994). Individual differences in the biological aspects of temperament. In J.E. Bates & T.D. Wachs (Eds.), Temperament; individual differences at the interface of biology and behavior (pp. 199-217). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Carlson, M., Earls, F., & Todd, R.D. (1988). The importance of regressive changes in the development of the nervous system: Towards a neurobiological theory of child development. Psychiatric Development, 1, 1-22.

Carlson, V., Cicchetti, D., Barnett, D., & Braunwald, K. (1989). Disorganized/disoriented attachment relationships in maltreated infants. Developmental Psychology, 25, 525-531.

Carter, C.S,. Krener, P., Chaderjian, M., Norhtcutt, C., & Wolfe, V. (1995). Asymmetrical visual-spatial attentional performance in ADHD: evidence for a right hemispheric deficit. Biological Psychiatry, 37, 789-797.

Castellanos, F.X., Giedd, J.N., Marsh, W.L., Hamburger, S.D., Vaituzis, A.C., Dickstein, D.P., Sarfatti, S.E., Vauss, Y.C., Snell, J.W., Lange, N., Kaysen, D., Krain, A.L., Ritchie, G.F., Rajapaske, J.C., & Rapaport, J.L. (1996). Quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 607-616.

Castro-Caldas, A., Petersson, K.M., Reis, A., Stone-Elander, S., & Ingvar, M. (1998). The illiterate brain. Learning to read and write during childhood influences the functional organization of the adult brain. Brain, 121, 1053-1063.

Causey, D.L., Robertson, J.M., & Elam, S.M. (1998). Characteristics of toddlers and preschoolers exhibiting severe psychiatric disturbance. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 29, 33-48.

Cavada, C., Company, T., Tejedor, J., Cruz-Rizzolo, & Reinoso-Suarez-Suarez, F. (2000). The anatomical connections of the macaque monkey orbitofrontal cortex. A review. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 220-242.

Chambers, R.A., Bremner, J.D., Moghaddam, B., Southwick, S.M., Charney, D.S., & Krystal, J.H. (1999). Glutamate and post-traumatic stress disorder: toward a psychobiology of dissociation. Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 4, 274-281.

Chiron, C., Jambaque, I., Nabbout, R., Lounes, R., Syrota, A., & Dulac, O. (1997). The right brain hemisphere is dominant in human infants. Brain, 120, 1057-1065.

Choi, D.W. (1992). Excitotoxic cell death. Journal of Neurobiology, 23, 1261-1276.

Chu, J.A., & Dill, D.L. (1990). Dissociative symptoms in relation to childhood physical and sexual abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 887-892.

Cicchetti, D. (1994). Integrating developmental risk factors: Perspectives from developmental psychopathology. In C.A. Nelson (Ed.), Minnesota symposium on child psychology. Vol. 27, Threats to optimal development (pp. 285-325). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Cicchetti, D., Ganiban, J., & Barnett, D. (1991). Contributions from the study of high-risk populations to understanding the development of emotion regulation. In J. Garber & K.A. Dodge (Eds.), The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation, (pp. 15-48). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Clarke, A.S., Hedeker, D.R., Ebert, M.H., Schmidt, D.E., McKinney, W.T., & Kraemer, G.W. (1996). Rearing experience and biogenic amine activity in infant rhesus monkeys. Biological Psychiatry, 40, 338-352.

Classen, C., Koopman, C., & Spiegel, D. (1993). Trauma and dissociation. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 57, 178-194.

Colombani, P.M., Buck, J.R., Dudgeon, D.L., Miller, D., & Hiller, J.A. (1985). One year experience in a regional pediatric trauma center. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 20, 8-13.

Colman-Mensches, K., & McGaugh, J.L. (1995). Differential involvement of the right and left amygdalae in expression of memory for aversively motivated training. Brain Research, 670, 75-81.

Colpaert, F.C. (1975). The ventromedial hypothalamus and the control of avoidance behavior and aggression: Fear hypothesis versus response-suppression theory of limbic system function. Behavioral Biology, 15, 27-44.

Connally, K., & Kvalsvig, J.D. (1993). Infection, nutrition and cognitive performance in children. Parasitology, 107, S187-S200.

Cooper, S.J. (1975). Anaesthetisation of prefrontal cortex and response to noxious stimulation. Nature, 254, 439-440.

Coplan, J.D., Andrews, M.W., Rosenblum, L.A., Owens, M.J., Gorman, J.M., & Nemeroff, C.B. (1996). Increased cerebrospinal fluid CRF concentrations in adult non-human primates previously exposed to adverse experiences as infants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93, 1619-1623.

Corodimas, K.P., LeDoux, J.E., Gold, P.W., & Schulkin, J. (1994). Corticosterone potentiation of learned fear. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 746, 392-393.

Corrigan, F.M., Davidson, A., & Heard, H. (2000). The role of dysregulated amygdalic emotion in borderline personality disorder. Medical Hypotheses, 54, 574-579.

Coule, J.T., Frith, C.D., Frackowiak, R.S.J., & Grasby, P.M. (1996). A fronto-parietal network for rapid visual information processing: a PET study of sustained attention and working memory. Neuropsychologia, 34, 1085-1095.

Craig, A.D., Chen, K., Bandy, D., & Reiman, E.M. (2000). Thermosensory activation of insular cortex. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 194-190.

Cummings, J.L. (1997). Neuropsychiatric manifestations of right hemisphere lesions. Brain and Language, 57, 22-37.

Cutting, J. (1992). The role of right hemisphere dysfunction in psychiatric disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 583-588.

Damasio, A.R. (1994). Descartes' error. New York: Grosset/Putnam.

Damasio, A.R. (1998). Emotion in the perspective of an integrated nervous system. Brain Research Reviews, 26, 83-86.

Darwin, C. (1872). The expression of emotion in man and animals. London: University of Chicago Press, 1965.

Davidson, R.J., & Fox, N.A. (1989). Frontal brain asymmetry predicts infants’ response to maternal separation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, 127-131.

Davidson, R., Ekman, P., Saron, C., Senulis, J., & Friesen, W. (1990). Approach-withdrawal and cerebral asymmetry: Emotion expression and brain physiology I. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 330-341.

Davidson, R.J., Putnam, K.M., & Larson, C.L. (2000). Dysfunction in the neural circuitry of emotion regulation-a possible prelude to violence. Science, 289, 591-594.

Davies, J.M., & Frawley, M.G. (1994). Treating the adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse. A psychoanalytic perspective. New York: Basic Books.

DeBellis, M.D., Baum, A.S., Birmaher, B., Keshavan, M.S., Eccard, C.H., Boring, A.M., Jenkins, F.J., & Ryan, N.D. (1999). Developmental traumatology Part I: Biological stress systems. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 1259-1270.

de Bellis, M.D., Casey, B.J., Dahl, R.E., Birmaher, B., Williamson, D.E., Thomas, K.M., Axelson, D.A., Frustaci, K., Boring, A.M., Hall, J., & Ryan, N.D. (2000a). A pilot study of amygdala volume in pediatric generalized anxiety disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 51-57.

de Bellis, M.D., Keshaven, M.S., Spencer, S., & Hall, J. (2000b). N-acetylaspartate concentration in anterior cingulate with PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1175-1177.

de Bruin, J. P.C. (1990). Social behaviour and the prefrontal cortex. Progress in Brain Research, 85, 485-500.

DeKosky, S.T., Nonneman, A.J., & Scheff, S.W. (1982). Morphologic and behavioral effects of perinatal glucocorticoid administration. Physiology and Behavior, 29, 895-900.

Deldin, P.J., Keller, J., Gergen, J.A., & Miller, G.A. (2000). Right-posterior face processing anomaly in depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 116-121.

Demaree, H.A., & Harrison, D.W. (1997). Physiological and neuropsychological correlates of hostility. Neuropsychologia, 35, 1405-1411.

de Oliveira, L., Hoffmann, A., & Menescal-de-Oliveira, L. (1997). The lateral hypothalamus in the modulation of tonic immobility in guinea pigs. NeuroReport, 8, 3489-3493.

Deutsch, A.Y., Goldstein, M., & Roth, R.H. (1986). Activation of the locus coeruleus induced by selective stimulation of the ventral tegmental area. Brain Research, 363, 307-314.

Deutsch, A.Y., Lee, M.C., Gilham, M.H., Cameron, D.A., Goldstein, M., & Iadarola, M.J. (1991). Stress selectively increases Fos protein in dopamine neurons innervating the prefrontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 1, 273-292.

Dewarja, R., & Sasaki, Y. (1990). A right to left callosal transfer defict of nonlinguistic information in alexithymia. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 54, 201-207.

Dias, R., Robbins, T.W., & Roberts, A.C. (1996). Dissociation in prefrontal cortex of affective and attentional shifts. Nature, 380, 69-72.

Diorio, D., Viau, V., & Meaney, M.J. (1993). The role of the medial prefrontal cortex (cingulate gyrus) in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to stress. Journal of Neuroscience, 13, 3839-3847.

Dixon, A.K. (1998). Ethological strategies for defense in animals and humans: Their role in some psychiatric disoredrs. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 71, 417-445.

Dobbing, J., & Smart, J. L. (1974). Vulnerability of developing brain and behavior. British Medical Bulletin, 30, 164-168.

Dostrovsky, J.O., Hutchison, W.D., Davis, K.D., & Lozano, A. (1995). Potential role of orbital and cingulate cortices in nociception. In J.M. Beeson, G. Guilbaud, & H. Ollat (Eds.), Forebrain areas involved in pain processing (pp. 171-181). Paris: John Libbey Eurotext.

Dowling, A.L.S., Martz, G.U., Leonard, J.L., & Zoeller, R.T. (2000). Acute changes in maternal thyroid hormone induce rapid and transient changes in gene expression in fetal rat brain. Journal of Neuroscience, 20, 2255-2265.

During, J., & Hornung, J.-P. (2000). Neonatal serotonin depletion affects developing and mature mouse cortical neurons. NeuroReport, 11, 833-837.

Eckenrode, J., Ganzel, B., Henderson, C.R., Jr., Smith, E., Olds, D.L., Powers, J., Cole, R., Kitzman, H., & Sidora, K. (2000). Preventing child abuse and neglect with a program of nurse home visitation. The limiting effects of domestic violence. Journal of the Amercian Medical Association, 284, 1385-1391.

Eisenberg, L. (1995). The social construction of the human brain. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 1563-1575.

Elliott, D. (1997). Traumatic events: prevalence and delayed recall in the general population. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 811-820.

Elliott, R., Dolan, R.J. & Frith, C.D. (2000). Dissociable functions in the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex: evidence from human neuroimaging studies. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 308-317.

Emde, R.N. (1988). Development terminable and interminable. I. Innate and motivational factors from infancy. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 69, 23-42.

Emde, R.N. (1990). Mobilizing fundamental modes of development: Empathic availability and therapeutic action. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 38, 881-913.

Epstein, J.N., Conners, C.K., Erhardt, D., March, J.S., & Swanson, J.M. (1997). Asymmetrical hemispheric control of visual-spatial attention in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychology, 11, 467-473.

Ernst, M., Zametkin, A.J., Matochik, J.A., Pascualvaca, D., Jons, P.H., & Cohen, R.M. (1999). High midbrain [18F] DOPA accumulation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1209-1215.

Espy, K.A., Kaufmann, P.M., & Glisky, M.L. (1999). Neuopsychological function in toddlers exposed to cocaine in utero: a preliminary study. Developmental Neuropsychology, 15, 447-460.

Euler, U.S. von, & Folkow, B. (1958). The effect of stimulation of autonomic areas in the cerebral cortex upon the adrenaline and noradrenaline secretion from the adrenal gland in the cat. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 42, 313-320.

Falk, D., Hildebolt, C., Cheverud, J., Vannier, M., Helmkamp, R.C., & Konigsberg, L. (1990). Cortical asymmetries in frontal lobes of Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Brain Research, 512, 40-45.

Famularo, R., Kinscherff, R., & Fenton, T. (1992). Posttraumatic stress disorded among children clinically diagnosed as borderline personality disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 179, 428-431.

Famularo, R., Kinscherff, R., & Fenton, T. (1992). Psychiatric diagnoses of abusive mothers. A preliminary report. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 180, 658-661.

Fanselow, M.S. (1986). Condtioned fear-induced opiate analgesia: A compelling motivational state theory of stress analgesia. in D.D. Kelly (Ed.). Stress-induced analgesia (pp. 40-54). New York: The New York Academy of Sciences.

Farber, J.L. (1981). The role of calcium in cell death. Life Sciences, 29, 1289-1295.

Fergusson, D.M., Woodward, L.J., & Horwood, L.J. (1998). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and psychiatric adjustment in late adolescence. Archives of Genral Psychiatry, 55, 721-727.

Field, T.M. (1977). Effects of early separation, interactive deficits and experimental manipulations on infant-mother face-to-face interactions. Child Development, 48, 763-771.

Field, T., Fox, N.A., Pickens, J., & Nawrocki, T. (1995). Relative right frontal EEG activation in 3- to 6-month-old infants of "depressed" mothers. Developmental Psychology, 31, 358-363.

Filloux, F., & Townsend, J.J. (1993). Pre- and postsynaptic neurotoxic effects of dopamine demonstrated by intrastriatal injection. Experimental Neurology, 119, 79-88.

Fink, G.R., Markowitsch, H.J., Reinkemeier, M., Bruckbauer, T., Kessler, J., & Heiss, W-D. (1996). Cerebral representation of one’s own past: Neural networks involved in autobiographical memory. Journal of Neuroscience, 16, 4275-4282.

Fisher, R.S., & Almli, C.R. (1984). Postnatal development of sensory influences on labeled hypothalamic neurons of the rat. Developmental Brain Research, 12, 55-75.

Fleming, A.S., O’Day, D.H., & Kraemer, G.W. (1999). Neurobiology of mother-infant interactions: experience and central nervous system plasticity across development and generations. Neuroscience and Reviews, 23, 673-685.

Fonagy, P. (1991). Thinking about thinking: some clinical and theoretical considerations in the treatment of a borderline patient. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 72, 639-656.

Fonagy, P., Leigh, T., Steele, M., Steele, H., Kennedy, R., Matoon, G., Target, M., & Garber, A. (1996). The relation of attachment status, psychiatric classification, and response to psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 22-31.

Fornai, F., Vaglini, F., Maggio, R., Bonuccelli, U., & Corsini, G.U. (1997). Species differences in the role of excitatory amino acids in experimental Parkinsonism. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 21, 401-415.

Foote, S.L. (1999). Development and vulnerability: new perspectives for anxiety disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 46, 1457-1460.

Fornazarrari, L., Farenik, K., Smith, I., Heasman, G.A., & Ischise, M. I. (1992). Violent visual hallucinations and aggression in frontal lobe dysfunction: Clinical manifestations of deep orbitofrontal foci. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 4, 42-44.

Fox, N.A., Schmidt, L.A., Calkins, S.D., Rubin, K.H., & Coplan, R.J. (1996). The role of frontal activation in the regulation and dysregulation of social behavior during the preschool years. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 89-102.

Fraiberg, S., Adelson, E., & Shapiro, V. (1975). Ghosts in the nursery: A psychoanalytic approach to the problem of impaired infant-mother relationships. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 14, 387-422.

Freud, A. (1951/1968). Notes on the connection between the states of negativism and psychic surrender. In The writings of Anna Freud, Vol. 4, (pp. 256-259). New York: International Universiites Press.

Freud, A. (1964/1969). Comments on psychic trauma. In The writings of Anna Freud, Vol. 4, (pp. 221-241). New York: International Universiites Press.

Freud, S. (1900). The interpretation of dreams. Standard Edition, 4 and 5. London, Hogarth Press, 1953.

Freud, S. (1915). The unconscious. Standard Edition 14. London, Hogarth Press, 1957.

Freud, S. (1920). Beyond the pleasure principle. Standard Edition 18. London, Hogarth Press, 1955.

Freud, S. (1926). Inhibition, symptoms, and anxiety. Standard Edition 20. London, Hogarth Press, 1959.

Freud, S. (1940). An outline of psychoanalysis. Standard Edition 23. London, Hogarth Press, 1964.

Frodi, A.M., & Lamb, M.E. (1980). Child abusers’ responses to infant smiles and cries. Child Development, 51, 238-241.

Gaensbauer, T.J., & Siegel, C.H. (1995). Therapeutic approaches to posttraumatic stress disorder in infants and toddlers. Infant Mental Health Journal, 16, 292-305.

Garthwaite, G., & Garthwaite, J. (1986). Amino acid toxicity: Intracellular sites of calcium accumulation associated with the onset of irreversible damage to rat cerebellar neurones in vitro. Neuroscience Letters, 71, 53-58.

Gellhorn, E. (1967). The tuning of the nervous system: Physiological foundations and implications for behavior. Perspectives in Biological Medicine, 10, 559-591.

Gennarelli, T.A. (1994). Animate models of human head injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 1, 357-368.

George, C., & Solomon, J. (1996). Representational models of relationships: Links between caregiving and attachment. Infant Mental Health Journal, 17, 198-216.

George, M.S./, Sackheim, H.A., Rush, A.J., Marangell, L.B., Nahas, Z., Hasain, M.M., Lisanby, S., Burt, T., Goldman, J., & Ballenger, J.C. (2000). Vagus nerve stimulation: a new tool for brain reserach and therapy. Biological Psychiatry, 47, 287-295.

Glover, V. (1997). Maternal stress or anxiety in pregnancy and emotional development of the child. British Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 105-106.

Glynn, L.M., Wadhwa, P.D., & Sandman, C.A. (2000). The influence of corticotropin-releasing hormone on human fetal development and parturition. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 14, 243-256.

Goldberg, E., & Bilder, R.M. (1987). The frontal lobes and hierarchical organization of cognitive control. In E. Perecman (Ed.), The frontal lobes revisited (pp. 159-187). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Goldenberg, G., Podreka, I., Uhl, F., Steiner, M., Willmes, K., & Deecke, L. (1989). Cerebral correlates of imagining colours, faces and a map - I. SPECT of regional cerebral blood flow. Neuropsychologia, 27, 1315-1328.

Golynkina, K., & Ryle, A. (1999). The identification and characteristics of the partially dissociated states of patients with borderline personality disorder. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 72, 429-435.

Gopnik, A., Meltzoff, A.N., & Kuhl, P.K. (1999). The scientist in the crib. Minds, brains, and how children learn. New York: Morrow.

Goyer, P.F., Konicki, P.E., & Schulz, S.C. (1994). Brain imaging in personality disorders. In K.R. Silk (Ed.), Biological and neurobehavioral studies of borderline personality disorder (pp. 109-125). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Grace, J., & Malloy, P. (1992). Neuropsychiatric aspects of right hemispheric learning disability. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology, 5, 194-204.

Grafman, J., Schwab, K., Warden, D., Pridgen, A., Brown, H.R., & Salazar, A.M. (1996). Frontal lobe injuries, violence, and aggression: a report of the Vietnam Head Injury Study. Neurology, 46, 1231-1238.

Graham, Y.P., Heim, C., Goodman, S.H., Miller, A.H., & Nemeroff, C.B. (1999). The effects of neonatal stress on brain development: implications for psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 545-565.

Gross-Tsur, V., Shalev, R.S., Manor, O., & Amir, N. (1995). Developmental right-hemisphere syndrome: Clinical spectrum of the nonverbal learning disability. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28, 80-86.

Grunau, R.V.E., Whitfield, M.F., Petrie, J.H., & Fryer, E.L. (1994). Early pain experience, child and family factors, as precursors of somatization: a prospective study of extremely premature and fullterm children. Pain, 56, 353-359.

Guilarte, T.R. (1998). The N -methyl-D-aspartate receptor: physiology and neurotoxicology in the developing brain. In W. Slikker & L.W. Chang (Eds.), Handbook of developmental neurotoxicology, (pp. 285-304). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Gurvits, T.V., Gilbertson, M.W., Lasko, N.B., Tarhan, A.S., Simeon, D., Macklin, M.L., Orr, S.P., & Pitman, R.K. (2000). Neurologic soft signs in chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 181-186.

Gyulai, F.E., Firestone, L.L., Mintun, M.A., & Winter, P.M. (1997). In vivo imaging of nitrous oxide-induced changes in cerebral activation during noxious heat stimuli. Anesthesiology, 86, 538-548.

Halgren, E. (1992). Emotional neurophysiology of the amygdala within the context of human cognition. In J.P. Aggleton (Ed.), The amygdala: neurobiological aspects of emotion, memory, and mental dysfunction, (pp. 191-228). New York: Wiley-Liss.

Hall, R.E., & Marr, H.B. (1975). Influence of electrical stimulation of posterior orbital cortex upon plasma cortisol levels in unanesthetized sub-human primate. Brain Research, 93, 367-371.

Hamner, M.B., Lorberbaum, J.P., & George, M.S. (1999). Potential role of the anterior cingulate cortex in PTSD: review and hypothesis. Depression and Anxiety, 9, 1-14.

Hariri, A.R., Bookheimer, S.Y., & Mazziotta, J.C. (2000). Modulating emotional responses: effects of a neocortical network on the limbic system. NeuroReport, 11, 43-48.

Harkness, K.L., & Tucker, D.M. (2000). Motivation of neural plasticity: neural mechanisms in the self-organization of depression. In M.D. Lewis & I. Granic (Eds.), Emotion, development, and self-organization, (pp. 186-208). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Harrington, A. (1985). Nineteenth-century ideas on hemisphere differences and "duality of mind". Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 8, 617-634.

Hart, S.N., & Brassard, M.R. (1987). A major threat to children’s mental health. American Psychologist, 42, 160-165.

Heilman, K.M., Schwartz, H., & Watson, R.T. (1977). Hypoarousal in patients with the neglect syndrome and emotional indifference. Neurology, 38, 229-232.

Heilman, K.M., & Van Den Abell, T. (1979). Right hemispheric dominance for mediating cerebral activation. Neuropsychologia, 17, 315-321.

Heim, C., & Nemeroff, C.B. (1999). The impact of early adverse experiences on brain systems involved inb the pathophysiology of anxiety and affective disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 46, 1509-1522.

Henry, J.P. (1993). Psychological and physiological responses to stress: The right hemisphere and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, an inquiry into problems of human bonding. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 28, 369-387.

Henry, J.P., Haviland, M.G., Cummings, M.A., Anderson, D.L., MacMurray, F.P., McGhee, W.H., & Hubbard, R.W. (1992). Shared neuroendocrine patterns of post-traumatic stress disorder and alexithymia. Psychosomatic Medicine, 54, 407-415.

Herman, J.L., & van der Kolk, B.A. (1987). Traumatic antecedents of borderline personality disorder. In B.A. van der Kolk (Ed.), Psychological trauma, (pp. 111-126). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Herman, J., Perry, J., & van der Kolk, B. A. (1989). Childhood trauma in borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 490-495.

Hertsgaard, L., Gunnar, M., Erickson, M.F., & Nachimias, M. (1995). Adrenocortical responses to the strange situation in infants with disorganized/disoriented attachment relationships. Child Development, 66, 1100-1106.

Hinshaw-Fuselier, S., Boris, N.W., & Zeanah, C.H. (1999). Reactive attachment disorder in maltreated twins. Infant Mental Health Journal, 20, 42-59.

Hommer, D., Andreasen, P., Rio, D., Williams, W., Ruttimann, U., Momenan, R., Zametkin, A., Rawlinngs, R., & Linnoila, M. (1997). Effects of m - chlorophenylpiperazine on regional brain glucose utilization: a positron emission tomographic comparison of alcoholic and control subjects. Journal of Neuroscience, 17, 2796-2806.

Hopkins, B., & Butterworth, G. (1990). Concepts of causality in explanations of development. In G. Butterworth & P. Bryant (Eds.), Causes of development, (pp. 3-32). Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum.

Horton, P.C. (1985). Personality disorder. Archives of Neurology, 42, 840.

Hsieh, J-C., Backdahl, M., Hagermark, O., Stone-Elander, S., Rosenquist, G., & Ingvar, M. (1995a). Traumatic nociceptive pain activates the hypothalamus and the periaqueductal gray: a positron emission tomography study. Pain, 64, 303-314.

Hsieh, J-C., Belfrage, M., Stone-Elander, S., Hannson, P., & Ingvar, M. (1995b). Central representation of chronic ongoing neuropathic pain studied by positron emission tomography. Pain, 64, 303-314.

Hunter, R.S., Kilstom, N., Kraybill, E.N., & Loda, F. (1978). Antecedents of child abuse and neglect in premature infants: A prospective study in a premature nursery. Pediatrics, 61, 629-635.

Huppi, P.S., Schuknecht, B., Boesch, C., Bossi, E., Felblinger, J., Fusch, C., & Herschkowitz, N. (1996). Structural and neurobehvioral delay in postnatal brain development of preterm infants. Pediatric Research, 39, 895-901.

Hurvich, M. (1989). Traumatic moment, basic dangers and annihilation anxiety. Psychoanalytic Review, 6, 309-323.

Hutchison, W.D., Harfa, L., & Dostrovsky, J.O. (1996). Ventrolateral orbital cortex and periaqueductal gray stimulation-induced effects on on- and off-cells in the rostral ventomedial medulla in the rat. Neuroscience, 70, 391-407.

Irwin, H.J. (1994). Proneness to dissociation and traumtic childhood events. Journal of Neuroscience, 182, 456-460.

Isenberg, N., Silbersweig, D., Engelien, A., Emmerich, S., Malavade, K., Beattie, B., & Leon, A.C. (1999). Linguistic threat activates the human amygdala. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96, 10456-10459.

Jacobson, S.W., Jacobson, J.L., Sokol, R.J., Martier, S.S., & Chiodo, L.M. (1996). New evidence for neuobehavioral effects of in utero cocaine exposure. Journal of Pediatrics, 129, 581-590.

Janet, P. (1889). L’Automatisme psychologique. Paris: Alcan.

Janet, P. (1924). The major syndromes of hysteria (2nd ed.). New York: MacMillan.

Johnsen, B.H., & Hugdahl, K. (1991). Hemispheric asymmetry in conditioning to facial emotional expressions. Psychophysiology, 28, 154-162.

Jones, A., Field, T., Fox, N.A., Lundy, B., & Davalos, M. (1997). EEG activation in one-month-old infants of depressed mothers. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 491-505.

Jones, N.A., Field, T., & Davalos, M. (2000). Right frontal EEG asymmetry and lack of empathy in preschool children of depressed mothers. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 30, 189-204.

Jones, T., & Greenough, W.T. (1996). Ultrastructural evidence for increased contact between astrocytes and synapses in rats reared in a complex environment. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 65, 4556.

Joseph, R. (1982). The neuropsychology of development: Hemispheric laterality, limbic language, and the origin of thought. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 4-33.

Joseph, R. (1996). Neuropsychiatry, neuropsychology, and clinical neuroscience, Second ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Kagan, J., Reznick, J.S., & Snidman, N. (1987). The physiology and psychology of behavioral inhibition in children. Child Development, 58, 1459-1473.

Kalin, N.H. (1993). The neurobiology of fear. Scientific American, May, 54-60.

Kalin, N.H., Shelton, S.E., & Lynn, D.E. (1995). Opiate systems in mother and infant primates coordinate intimate contact during reunion. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 20, 735-742.

Kalin, N.H., Shelton, S.E., Rickman, M., & Davidson, R.J. (1998). Individual differences in freezing and cortisol in infant and mother rhesus monkeys. Behavioral Neuroscience, 112, 251-254.

Kalogeras, K.T., Nieman, L.K., Friedman, T.C., Doppman, J.L., Cutler, G.B. Jr., Chrousos, G.P., Wilder, R.L., Gold, P.W., & Yanovski, J.A. (1996). Inferior petrosal sinus sampling in healthy human subjects reveals a unilateral corticotropin-releasing hormone-induced arginine vasopressin release associated with ipsilateral adrenocorticotropin secretion. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 97, 2045-2050.

Karr-Morse, R., & Wiley, M.S. (1997). Ghosts from the nursery: tracing the roots of vivolence. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.

Kathol, R.G., Jaeckle, R.S., Lopez, J. F., & Meller, W.H. (1989). Pathophysiology of HPA axis abnormalities in patients with major depression: An update. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 311-317.

Kaufman, I.C., & Rosenblum, L.A. (1967). The reaction to separation in infant monkeys: Anaclitic depression and conservation-withdrawal. Psychosomatic Medicine, 40, 649-675.

Kaufman, I.C., & Rosenblum, L.A. (1969). Effects of separation from mother on the emotional behavior of infant monkeys, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 159, 681-695.

Kaufman, J., & Zigler, E. (1989). The intergenerational transmission of child abuse. In D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect, (pp. 129-150). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Keshavan, M.S., Anderson, S., & Pettegrew, J.W. (1994). Is schizophrenia due to excessive synaptic pruning in the prefrontal cortex? The Feinberg hypothesis revisited. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 28, 239-265.

Kestenberg, J. (1985). The flow of empathy and trust between mother and child. In E.J. Anthony & G.H. Pollack (Eds.), Parental influences in health and disease, (pp. 137-163). Boston, MA: Little Brown.

Kiersky, S.& Beebe, B. (1994). The reconstruction of early nonverbal relatedness in the treatment of difficult patients. A special form of empathy. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 4, 389-408.

Kingstone, A., Friesen, C.K., & Gazzaniga, M.S. (2000). Reflexive joint attention depends on lateralized cortical connections. Psychological Science, 11, 159-166.

Kinney, D. K., Steingard, R.J., Renshaw, P.F., & Yurgelun-Todd, D.A. (2000). Perinatal complications and abnormal proton metabolite concentrations in frontal cortex of adolescents seen on magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology, 13, 8-12.

Kinsbourne, M., & Bemporad, B. (1984). Lateralization of emotion: A model and the evidence. In N.A. Fox & R.J. Davidson (Eds.), The psychobiology of affective development, (pp. 259-291). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Kita, H., & Oomura, Y. (1981). Reciprocal connections between the lateral hypothalamus and the frontal cortex in the rat. Brain Research, 213, 1-16.

Kling, A., & Steklis, H.D. (1976). A neural substrate for affiliative behavior in non-human primates. Brain, Behavior, and Evolution, 13, 216-238.

Knapp, A.G., Schmidt, K.F., & Dowling, J. E. (1990). Dopamine modulates the kinetics of ion channels gated by excitatory amino acids in retinal horizontal cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 87, 767-771.

Koizumi. K., Terui, N., Kollai, M., & Brooks, C.M. (1982). Functional significance of coactivation of vagal and sympathetic cardiac nerves. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 79, 2116-2120.

Kolb, B., & Whishaw, I.Q. (1998). Brain plasticity and behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 43-64.

Koopman, C., Classen, C., & Spiegel, D. (1994). Predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms among survivors of the Oakland/Berkeley, Calif, firestorm. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 888-894.

Kraemer, G.W., & Clarke, A.S. (1996). Social attachment, brain function, and aggression. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 794, 121-135.

Kruk, M.R., Van der Poel, A.M., & De Vos-Frerichs, T.P. (1979). The induction of aggressive behavior by electrical stimulation in the hypothalamus of male rats. Behaviour, 70, 292-321.

Krystal, H.(1988). Integration and self-healing: Affect-trauma-alexithymia. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press.

Krystal, H. (1997). Desomatization and the consequences of infantile psychic trauma. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 17, 126-150.

La Bar, K.S., Gatenby, J.C., Gore, J.C., Le Doux, J.E., & Phelps, E.A. (1998). Human amygdala activation during conditioned fear acquisition and extinction: A mixed-trial fMRI study. Neuron, 20, 937-945.

Ladd, C.O., Owens, M.J., & Nemeroff, C.B. (1996). Persistent changes in corticotropin-releasing factor neuronal systems induced by maternal deprivation. Endocrinology, 137, 1212-1218.

Lafon-Cazal, M., Pietri, S,., Culcasi, M., & Bockaert, J. (1993). NMDA-dependent superoxide production and neurotoxicity. Nature, 364, 535-537.

Laming, P.R., Kimelberg, H., Robinson, S., Salm, A., Hawrylak, N., Muller, C., Roots, B., & Ng., K. (2000). Neuronal-glial interactions and behavior. Neuroscence and Biobehavioral Reviews, 24, 295-340.

Lane, R.D., Ahern, G.L., Schwartz, G.E., & Kaszniak, A.W. (1997). Is alexithymia the emotional equivalent of blindsight? Biological Psychiatry, 42, 834-844.

Laureys, S., Faymonville, M-E., Degueldre, C., Del Fiore, G., Damas, P., Lambermont, B., Janssens, N., Aerts, J., Franck, G., Luxen, A., Moonen, G., Lamy, M., & Maquet, P. (2000). Auditory processing in the vegetaive state. Brain, 123, 1589-1601.

Levitsky, D. A., & Strupp, B.J. (1995). Malnutrition and the brain: changing concepts, changing concerns. Journal of Nutrition, 125, 2212S-2220S.

Lewis, M.H., Gluck, J. P., Beauchamp, A.J., Keresztury, M.F., & Mailman, R.B. (1990). Long-term effects of early social isolation in Macaca mulatta : Changes in dopamine receptor function following apomorphine challenge. Brain Research, 513, 67-73.

Lieberman, A.F. (1997). Toddler’s internalization of maternal attributions as a factor in quality of attachment. In L. Atkinson & K.J. Zucker (Eds.), Attachment and Psychopathology, (pp. 277-291). New York: Guilford Press.

Liotti, G. (1992). Disorganized/disoriented attachment in the etiology of the dissociative disorders. Dissociation, IV, 196-204.

Liotti, G. (1999). Understanding the dissociative processs: the contribution of attachment theory. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 19, 757-783.

Lipska, B.K., & Weinberger, D.R. (1995). Genetic variation in vulnerability to the behavioral effects of neonatal hippocampal damage in rats. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Unitted States of America, 92, 8906-8910.

Litz, B.T., Orsillo, S.M., Kaloupek, D., & Weathers, F. (2000). Emotional processing in posttraumatic stress disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 26-39.

Liu, J., Wang, X., Shigenaga, M.K., Yeo, H.C., Mori, A., & Ames, B.N. (1996). Immobilization stress causes oxidative damage to lipid, protein, and DNA in the brain of rats. The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal, 10, 1532-1538.

Lohr, J.B. (1991). Oxygen radicals and neuropsychiatric illness. Some speculations. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 1097-1106.

London, E.D., Ernst, M., Grant, S., Bonson, K., & Weinstein, A. (2000). Orbitofrontal cortex and human drug abuse: functional imaging. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 334-342.

Luu, P., & Tucker, D.M. (1997). Self-regulation and cortical development: implications for functional studies of the brain. In R.W. Thatcher, G. Reid Lyon, J. Rumsey, & N. Krasnegor (Eds.), Developmental neuroimaging; mapping the development of brain and behavior, (pp. 297-305). San Diego: Academic Press.

Lyons-Ruth, K., Repacholi, B., McLeod, S., & Silva, E. (1991). Disorganized attachment behavior in infancy: Short-term stability, maternal and infant correlates, and risk-related subtypes. Development and Psychopathology, 3, 377-396.

Lyons-Ruth, K., Alpern, L., & Repacholi, B. (1993). Disorganized infant attachment classification and maternal psychosocial problems as predictors of hostile-aggressive behavior in the preschool classroom. Child Development, 64, 572-585.

Lyons-Ruth, K., & Jacobvitz, D. (1999). Attachment disorganization. Unresolved loss, relational violence, and lapses in behavioral and attentional strategies. In J. Cassidy & P.R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications, (pp. 520-554). New York: Guilford Press.

Maestripieri, D. (1999). The biology of human parenting: insights from nonhuman primates. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 23, 411-422.

MacLean, P.D. (1987). The midline frontolimbic cortex and the evolution of crying and laughter. In E. Perecman (Ed.). The frontal lobes revisited, (pp. 121-140). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Mahler, M.S. (1958). Autism and symbiosis: two extreme disturbances of identity. International Journal of Psych-Analysis, 39, 77-83.

Main, M. (1995). Recent studies in attachment. Overview, with selected implications for clinical work. In S. Goldberg, R. Muir, & J. Kerr (Eds.), Attachment theory: social, developmental, and clinical perspectives, (pp. 407-474. New York: Analytic Press.

Main, M. (1996). Introduction to the special section on attachment and psychopathology: 2. Overview of the field of attachment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 237-243.

Main, M. (1999). Epilogue. Attachment theory: Eighteen points with suggestions for future studies. In J. Cassidy & P.R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications, (pp. 845-887). New York: Guilford Press.

Main, M., & Solomon, J. (1986). Discovery of an insecure-disorganized / disoriented attachment pattern: Procedures, findings and implications for the classification of behavior. In T.B. Brazelton & M.W. Yogman (Eds.), Affective development in infancy, (pp. 95-124). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Majewska, M.D., Harrison, N.L., Schwartz, R.D., Barker, J.L., & Paul, S.M. (1986). Steroid hormone metabolites are barbiturate-like modulators of the GABA receptor. Science, 232, 1004-1007.

Malizia, A.L., Cunningham, V.J., Bell, C,J., Liddle, P.F., Jones, T., & Nutt, D.J. (1998). Decreased brain GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor binding in panic disorder. Preliminary results from a quantitative PET study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 715-720.

Malkova, L., Mishkin, M., Suomi, S.J., & Bachevalier, J. (1997). Socioemotional behavior in adult rhesus monkeys after early versus late lesions of the medial temporal lobe. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 807, 538-540.

Manoach, D.S., Weintraub, S., Daffner, K.R., & Scinto, L.F.M. (1997). Deficient antisaccades in the social-emotional processing disorder. NeuroReport, 8, 901-905.

Mamelak, M. (2000). The motor vehicle collision injury syndrome. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology, 13, 125-135.

Margolis, R.L., Chuang, D.M., & Post, R.M. (1994). Programmed cell death: Implications for neuropsychiatric disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 35, 946-956.

Markowitsch, H.J., Kessler, J., Weber-Luxenburger, G., Van der Ven, C., Albers, M., & Heiss, W-D. (2000). Neuroimaging and behavioral correlates of recovery from mnestic block syndrome and other cognitive deteriorations. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology, 13, 60-66.

Martin, L.J., Spicer, D.M., Lewis, M.H., Gluck, J. P., & Cork, L.C. (1991). Social deprivation of infant rhesus monkeys alters the chemoarchitecture of the brain: 1. Subcortical regions. Journal of Neuroscience, 11, 3344-3358.

Mayseless, O. (1998). Maternal caregiving strategy- a distinction between the ambivalent and the disorganized profile. Infant Mental Health Journal, 19, 20-33.

McDonald, J.W., Silverstein, F.S., & Johnston, M.V. (1988). Neurotoxicity of N-methyl-D-aspartate is markedly enhanced in developing rat central nervous system. Brain Research, 459, 200-203.

McDonald, P.W., & Prkachin, K.M. (1990). The expression and perception of facial emotion in alexithymia: a pilot study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 52, 199-210.

McGuire, P.K., Bench, C.J., Frith, C.D., Marks, I.M., Frackowiak, R.S.J., & Dolan, R.J. (1994). Functional anatomy of obsessive-compulsive phenomena. British Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 459-468.

McIntosh, T.K., Vink, R., Noble, L., Yamakami, I., Frenyak, S., & Faden, A.L. (1989). Traumatic brain injury in the rat: characterization of a lateral fluid -percussion model. Neuroscience, 28, 233-244.

McLaughlin, B.A., Nelson, D., Erecinska, M., & Chesselet, M.-F. (1998). Toxicity of dopamine to striatal neurons in vitro and potentiation of cell death by a mitochondrial inhibitor. Journal of Neurochemistry, 70, 2406-2415.

Meares, R. (1993). The metaphor of play: disruption and restoration in the borderline experience. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

Meares, R. (1999). The contribution of Hughlings Jackson to an understanding of dissociation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1850-1855.

Mega, M.S., & Cummings, J.L. (1994) Frontal-subcortical circuits and neuropsychiatric Disorders. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 6, 358-370.

Melzack, R., & Wall, P.D. (1996). The challenge of pain. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Mendez, M.A., & Adair, L.S. (1999). Severity and timing of stunting in the first two years of life affect performance on cognitive tests in late childhood. Journal of Nutrition, 129, 1555-1562.

Mesulam, M.-M. (1998). From sensation to cognition. Brain, 121, 1013-1052.

Miller, B.L., Darby, A., Benson, D.F., Cummings, J.L., & Miller, M.H. (1997). Aggressive, socially disruptive and antisocial behaviour associated with fronto-temporal dementias. British Journal of Psychiatry, 170, 150-155.

Miller, L. (1986). Some comments on cerebral hemsipheric models of consciousness. Psychoanalytic Review, 73, 129-144.

Min, S. K., & Lee, B.O. (1997). Laterality in somatization. Psychosomatic Medicine, 59, 236-240.

Mizuno, N., Sauerland, E.K., & Clemente, C.D. (1968). Projections from the orbital gyrus in the cat. I. To brain stem structures. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 133, 463-476.

Mogg, K., Bradley, B.P., Williams, R., & Mathews, A. (1993). Subliminal processing of emotional information in anxiety and depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 304-311.

Moghaddam, B. (1993). Stress preferentially increases extraneuronal levls of excitatory amino acids in the prefrontal cortex: comparison to hippocampus and basal ganglia. Journal of Neurochemistry, 60, 1650-1657.

Moghaddam, B., Bolinao, M.L., Stein-Behrens, B., & Sapolsky, R. (1994). Glucocorticoids mediate the stress-induced extracellular accumulation of glutamate. Brain Research, 655, 251-254.

Moleman, N., van der Hart, O., & van der Kolk, B.A. (1992). The partus stress reaction: a neglected etiological factor in postpartum psychiatric disorders. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 180, 271-2272.

Moller, A.P., & Swaddle, J.P. (1997). Asymmetry, developmental stability, and evolution. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Mollon, P. (1996). Muliple selves, multiple voices: working with trauma, violation and dissociation. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Morgan, C.A., Grillon, C., Lubin, H., & Southwick, S.M. (1997). Startle reflex abnormalities in women with sexual assault-related posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1076-1080.

Morgan, M.A., Romanski, L.M., & LeDoux, J.E. (1993). Extinction of emotional learning: contribution of medial prefrontal cortex. Neuroscience Letters, 163, 109-113.

Morgan, M.A., & LeDoux, J.E. (1995). Differential acquisition of dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex to the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear in rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 109, 681-688.

Morris, J.S., Ohman, A., & Dolan, R.J. (1999). A subcortical pathway to the right amygdala mediating "unseen" fear. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Unitted States of America, 96, 1680-1685.

Multi-Society Task Force on Persistent Vegetative State (1994). Medical aspect of the persisitent vegetative state. New England Journal of Medicine, 330, 1499-1508.

National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (1981). Executive summary: National study of the incidence and severity of child abuse and neglect (DHHS Publication No. OHDS 81-30329). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Nayak, M.B., & Milner, J.S. (1998). Neuropsychological functioning: comparison of mothers at high- and low-risk for child physical abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22, 687-703.

Neafsey, E.J. (1990). Prefrontal cortical control of the autonomic nervous system: Anatomical and physiological observations. Progress in Brain Research, 85, 147-166.

Nemiah, J.C., & Sifneos, P.E. (1970), Affect and fantasy in patients with psychosomatic disorders. In O.W. Hill (Ed.), Modern trends in psychosomtic medicine, vol. 2, (pp. 26-34). London: Buttersworth.

Nijenhuis, E.R.S., Vanderlinden, J., & Spinhoven, P. (1998). Animal defensive reactions as a model for trauma-induced dissociative reations. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11, 242-260.

Norman, R.M.G., Malla, A.K., Morrison-Stewart, S.L., Helmes, E., Williamson, P.C., Thomas, J., & Cortese, L. (1997). Neuropsychological correlates of syndromes in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 170, 134-139.

Northoff, G., Richter, A., Gessner, M., Schlagenhauf, F., Fell, J., Baumgart, F., Kaulisch, T., Kotter, R., Stephan, K.E., Leschinger, A., Hagner, T., Bargel, B., Witzel, T., Hinrichs, H., Bogerts, B., Scheich, H., & Heinze, H-J. (2000). Functional dissociation between medial and lateral prefrontal cortical spatiotemporal activation in negative and positive emotions: a combined fMRI/MEG study. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 93-107.

Novelli, A., Reilly, J.A., Lysko, P.G., & Henneberry, R.C. (1988). Glutamate becomes neurotoxic via the N - methyl-D-aspartate receptor when intracellular energy levels are reduced. Brain Research, 451, 205-212.

O’Connor, M.J., Sigman, M., & Brill, N. (1987). Disorganization of attachment in relation to maternal alcohol cocnsumption. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 55, 831-836.

Ogawa, J.R., Sroufe, L.A., Weinfield, N.S., Carlson, E.A., & Egeland, B. (1997). Development and the fragmented self: Longitudinal study of dissociative symptomatology in a nonclinical sample. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 855-879.

O’Hagan, K.P. (1995). Emotional and psychological abuse-problems of definition. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19, 449-461.

Ohta, M., & Oomura, Y. (1979). Inhibitory pathway from the frontal cortex to the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus in the rat. Brain Research Bulletin, 4, 231-238.

Orchinik, M., Murray, T.F., & Moore, F.L. (1994). Steroid modulation of GABA receptors in an amphibian brain. Brain Research, 646, 258-266.

Osofsky, J.D., Cohen, G., & Drell, M. (1995). The effects of trauma on young children: a case of 2-year-old twins. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 76. 595-607.

Osterheld-Haas, M.C., Van der loos, H., & Hornung, J.-P. (1994). Monoaminergic afferents to cortex modulate structural plasticity in the barrelfield of the mouse. Developmental Brain Research, 77, 189-202.

Panksepp, J. (1998). Affective neuroscience: the foundations of human and animal emotions. New York: Oxford University Press.

Papousek, H., & Papousek, M. (1975). Parent-infant interaction. New York: Associated Science.

Papousek, M., & von Hofacker, N. (1998). Persisitent crying in early infancy: a non-trivial condition of risk for the developing mother-infant relationship. Child: care, health and development, 24, 395-424.

Paris, J. (1995). Memories of abuse in borderline patients: true or false? Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 3, 10-17.

Park, J.S., Bateman, M.C., & Goldberg, M.P. (1996). Rapid alterations in dendrite morphology during sublethal hypoxia or glutamate receptor activation. Neurobiology of Disease, 3, 215-227.

Pazdernik, T., Cross, R., Nelson, S. (1994). Is there an energy conservation "system" in brain that protects against the consequences of energy depletion? Neurochemistry Research, 19, 1393-1400.

Perry, B.D., Pollard, R.A., Blakely, T.L., Baker, W.L., & Vigilante, D. (1995). Childhood trauma, the neurobiology of adaptation, and "use-dependent" development of the brain. How "states" become "traits". Infant Mental Health Journal, 16, 271-291.

Persinger, M.A., & Makarec, M. (1991). Greater right hemisphericity is associated with lower self-esteem in adults. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 73, 1244-1246.

Petrovic, P., Petersson, K.M., Ghatan, P.H., Sone-Elander, S., & Ingvar, M. (2000). Pain-related cerebral activation is altered by a distracting cognitive task. Pain, 85, 19-30.

Phelps, J.L., Belsky, J., & Crnic, K. (1998). Earned security, daily stress, ands parenting: A comparison of five alternative models. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 21-38.

Pliszka, S.R., Liotti, M., & Woldorff, M.G. (2000). Inhibitory control in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: event-related potentials identify the processing component and timing of an impaired right-frontal response inhibition mechanism. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 238-246.

Pollak, S.D., Cicchetti, D., Hornung, K., & Reed, A. (2000). Recognizing emotion in faces: developmental effects of child abuse and neglect. Developmental Psychology, 36, 679-688.

Porges, S.W. (1997). Emotion: an evolutionary by-product of the neural regulationof the autonomic nervous system. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 807: 62-77.

Porges, S.W., Doussard-Roosevelt, J.A., & Maiti, A.K. (1994). Vagal tone and the physiological regulation of emotion. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 167-186.

Posner, M.I., & Petersen, S.E. (1990). The attention system of the human brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 13, 182-196.

Post, R.M., Weiss, R.B., Smith, M., & McCann, U. (1997). Kindling versus quenching. Implications for the evolution and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 821, 285-295.

Post, R.M., Weiss, R.B., & Leverich, G.S. (1994). Recurrent affective disorder: Roots in developmental neurobiology and illness progression based on changes in gene expression. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 781-813.

Powles, W.E. (1992). Human development and homeostasis. Madison, CT: International Universities Press.

Price, D.D. (2000). Psychological and neural mechanisms of the affective dimension of pain. Science, 288, 1769-1772.

Price, J.L., Carmichael, S.T., & Drevets, W.C. (1996). Networks related to the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex; a substrate for emotional behavior? Progress in Brain Research, 107, 523-536.

Prins, A., Kaloupek, D.G., & Keane, T.M. (1995). Psychophysiological evidence for autonomic arousal and startle in traumatized adult populations. In M.J. Friedman, D.S. Charney, & A.Y. Deutsch (Eds.), Neurobiological and clinical cosequences of stress: From normal adaptation to post-traumatic stress disorders, (pp. 291-314). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven.

Pryce, C.R. (1995). Determinants of motherhood in human and nonhuman primates. A biosocial model. In C.R. Pryce, R.D. Martin, & D. Skuse (Eds.), Motherhood in human and nonhuman primates, (pp. 1-15). Basel: Karger.

Putnam, F.W. (1989). Diagnosis and treatment of multiple personality disorder. New York: Guilford Press.

Putnam, F.W. (1997). Dissociation in children and adolescents: a developmental perspective. New York: Guilford Press.

Raine, A., Stoddard, J., Bihrle, S., & Buchsbaum, M. (1998a). Prefrontal glucose deficits in murderers lacking psychosocial deprivation. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology, 11, 1-7.

Raine, A., Meloy, J.R., Bihrle, S., Stoddard, J., Lacasse, L., & Buchsbaum, M.S. (1998b). Reduced prefrontal and increased subcortical brain functioning assessed using positron emission tomography in predatory and affective muderers. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 16, 319-332.

Rauch, S.L., Jenike, M.A., Alpert, N.M., Baer, L., Breiter, H.C.R., Savage, C.R., & Fischman, A.J. (1994). Regional cerebral blood flow measured during symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder using oxygen 15-labeled carbon dioxide and positron emission tomography. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 62-70.

Rauch, S.L., van der Kolk, B.A., Fisler, R.E., Alpert, N.M., Orr, S.P., Savage, C.R., Fischman, A.J., Jenike, M.A., & Pitman, R.K. (1996). A symptom provocation study of posttraumatic stress disorder using positron emission tomography and script-driven imagery. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 380-387.

Reid, S. (1999). Autism and trauma. Autistic post-traumatic developmental disorder. In A. Alvarez & S. Reid (Eds.), Autism and personality. Findings from the Tavistock Autism Workshop, (pp. 93-109). London: Routledge.

Reite, M., & Capitanio, J.P. (1985). On the nature of social separation and attachment. In M. Reite & T. Field.(Ed.), The psychobiology of attachment and separation, (pp. 223-255). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

Reshetniak, V.K., & Kukushkin, M.L. (1989). Effects of removal of orbitofrontal cortex and the development of reflex analgesia. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine, 108, 14-16.

Rinaman, L., Levitt, P., & Card, J.P. (2000). Progressive postnatal assembly of limbic-autonomic circuits revealed by central transneuronal transport of pseudorabies virus. Journal of Neuroscience, 20, 2731-2741.

Rolls, E.T. (1996). The orbitofrontal cortex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 351, 1433-1444.

Rolls, E.T., Hornak, J., Wade, D., & McGrath, J. (1994). Emotion-related learning in patients with social and emotional changes associated with frontal lobe damage. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 57, 1518-1524.

Roozendaal, B., Koolhaas, J.M., & Bohus, B. (1997). The role of the central amygdala in stress and adaptation. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, Supplement, 640, 51-54.

Rosenblum, L.A., Coplan, J.D., Friedman, S., Basoff, T., Gorman, J.M., & Andrews, M.W. (1994). Adverse early experiences affect noradrenergic and serotonergic functioning in adult primates. Biological Psychiatry, 35, 221-227.

Ross, E.D., Homan, R.W., & Buck, R. (1994). Differential hemispheric lateralization of primary and social emotions. Implications for developing a comprehensive neurology for emotions, repression, and the subconscious. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology, 7, 1-19.

Rotenberg, V.S. (1995). Right hemisphere insufficiency and illness in the context of search activity concept. Dynamic Psychiatry, 150/151, 54-63.

Rourke, B.P., Young, G.C., & Leenaars, A.A. (1989). A childhood learning disability that predisposes those afflected to adolescent and adult depresion and suicide risk. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22, 169-175.

Ruch, T.C., & Shenkin, H.A. (1943). The relation of area 13 on orbital surface of frontal lobes to hyperactivity and hyperphagia in monkeys. Journal of Neurophysiology, 6, 349-360.

Ruda, M.A., Ling, Q-D., Hohmann, A.G., Peng, Y.B., & Tachibana, T. (2000). Altered nociceptive neuronal circuits after neonatal peripheral inflammation. Science, 289, 628-630.

Russ, M.J., Roth, S.D., Lerman, A., Kakuma, T., Harrison, K., Shindledecker, R.D., Hull, J., & Mattis, S. (1992). Pain perception in self-injurious patients with borderline personality disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 32, 501-511.

Sandman, C.A., Wadha, P.D., Dunkel-Schetter, Chicz-DeMet, A., Belman, J., Porto, M., Murata, Y., Garite, T.J., & Crinella, F.M. (1994). Psychobiological influences of stress and HPA regulation on the human fetus and infant birth outcomes. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 739, 198-209.

Schinder, A.F., Olson, E.C., Spitzer, N.C., & Montal, M. (1996). Mitochondrial dysfunction is a primary event in glutamate toxicity. Journal of Neuroscience, 19, 6125-6133.

Schneider, M.L., Clarke, S., Kraemer, G.W., Roughton, E.C., Lubach, G.R., Rimm-Kaufman, S., Schmidt, D., & Ebert, M. (1998). Prenatal stress alters biogenic amine levels in primates. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 427-440.

Schore, A.N. (1994). Affect regulation and the origin of the self: The neurobiology of emotional development. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Schore, A.N. (1996). The experience-dependent maturation of a regulatory system in the orbital prefrontal cortex and the origin of developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 59-87

Schore, A.N. (1997a). Early organization of the nonlinear right brain and development of a predisposition to psychiatric disorders. Development and Psychopathology, 9: 595-631.

Schore, A.N. (1997b). A century after Freud’s Project: Is a rapprochement between psychoanalysis and neurobiology at hand? Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 45, 841-867.

Schore, A.N. (1997c). Interdisciplinary developmental research as a source of clinical models. In M. Moskowitz, C. Monk, C. Kaye, & S. Ellman (Eds.), The neurobiological and developmental basis for psychotherapeutic intervention, (pp. 1-71). Northvale, NJ: Aronson.

Schore, A.N. (1997d). The relevance of recent research on the infant brain to clinical psychiatry. Unpublished Grand Rounds presentation, Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University School of Medicine. New York, NY, October, 1997.

Schore, A.N. (1998a). The experience-dependent maturation of an evaluative system in the cortex. In K. Pribram (Ed.), Brain and values: Is a biological science of values possible, (pp. 337-358). Mahweh, NJ: Erlbaum.

Schore, A.N. (1998b). Early shame experiences and infant brain development. In P. Gilbert & B. Andrews Shame: interpersonal behavior, psychopathology, and culture, (pp. 57-77). New York: Oxford University Press.

Schore, A.N. (1998c). Early trauma and the development of the right brain. Unpublished plenary address, Conference, "Understanding and Treating Trauma: Developmental and Neurobiological Approaches." UCLA Campus, Los Angeles, CA, February, 1998.

Schore, A.N. (1998d). The relevance of recent research on the infant brain to clinical psychiatry. Unpublished keynote address, Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists, Faculty of Child and Adolescent Annual Conference. Sydney, Australia, October, 1998.

Schore, A.N. (1998e). Early trauma and the development of the right brain. Unpublished keynote address, C.M. Hincks Institute Conference on "Traumatized parents and infants: The long shadow of early childhood trauma." University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, November, 1998.

Schore, A.N. (1999a). Commentary on emotions: Neuro-psychoanalytic views. Neuro-Psychoanalysis, 1, 49-55.

Schore, A.N. (1999b). The development of a predisposition to violence: The critical roles of attachment disorders and the maturation of the right brain. Unpublished invited presentation, Children’s Institute International Conference, "Understanding the Roots of Violence: Kids Who Kill." Good Samaritan Hospital, Los Angeles, CA, March, 1999.

Schore, A.N. (1999c). Early trauma and the development of the right brain. Unpublished invited address, Conference, "Psychological Trauma: Maturational Processes and Therapeutic Interventions." Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, April, 1999.

Schore, A.N. (1999d). The enduring effects of early trauma on the right brain. Unpublished invited address, Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Symposium, "Attachment, Trauma, and the Developing Mind." Chicago, IL, October, 1999.

Schore, A.N. (2000a). Foreword to the reissue of Attachment and loss, Vol. 1: Attachment by John Bowlby. New York: Basic Books.

Schore, A.N. (2000b). Attachment and the regulation of the right brain. Attachment & Human Development, 2, 23-47.

Schore, A.N. (2000c). The self-organization of the right brain and the neurobiology of emotional development. In M.D. Lewis & I. Granic (Eds.), Emotion, development, and self-organization, (pp. 155-185). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Schore, A.N. (2000d). Early relational trauma and the development of the right brain. Unpublished invited presentation, Anna Freud Centre. London, England, March, 2000.

Schore, A.N. (in press, a). The right brain as the neurobiological substratum of Freud’s dynamic unconscious. In D. Scharff & J. Scharff (eds.), Freud at the millennium: The evolution and application of psychoanalysis. New York: The Other Press.

Schore, A.N. (in press, b). Clinical implications of a psychoneurobiological model of projective identification. In S. Alhanati (Ed.), Primitive mental states, Vol. lll: Pre- and peri-natal influences on personality development. New York: Karnac.

Schore, A.N. (in press c). The seventh annual John Bowlby memorial lecture. Minds in the making: attachment, the self-organizing brain, and developmentally-oriented psychoanalytic psychotherapy. British Journal of Psychotherapy,17, 299-328.

Schore, A.N. (work in progress). Affect regulation and the repair of the self. New York: Guilford Press.

Schuengel, C., Bakersmans-Kranenburg, M.J., & Van Ijzendoorn, M.H. (1999). Frightening maternal behavior linking unresolved loss and disorganized infant attachment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 54-63.

Schwaber, J.S., Kapp, B.S., Higgins, G.A., & Rapp, P.R. (1982). Amygdaloid and basal forebrain direct connections with the nucleus of the solitary tract and the dorsal motor nucleus. Journal of Neuorscience, 2, 1424-1438.

Segal, M., Korkotian, E., & Murphy, D.D. (2000). Dendritic spine formation and pruning: common cellular mechanisms? Trends in Neuroscience, 23, 53-57.

Sgoifo, A., Koolhaas, J., De Boer, S., Musso, E., Stilli, D., Buwalda, B., & Meerlo, P. (1999). Social stress, autonomic neural activation, and cardiac activity in rats. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 23, 915-923.

Shalev, A.Y., Peri, T., Canetti, L., & Schreiber, S. (1996). Predictors of PTSD in injured trauma survivors: a prospective study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 219-225.

Shin, L.M., Kosslyn, S.M., McNally, R.J., Alpert, N.M., Thompson, W.L., Rauch, S.L., Macklin, M.L., & Pitman, R.K. (1997). Visual imagery and perception in posttraumatic stress disorder. A positron emission tomographic investigation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 233-241.

Shin, L.M., McNally, R.J., Kosslyn, S.M., Thompson, W.L., Rauch, S.L., Alpert, N.M., Metzger, L.J., Lasko, N.B., Orr, S.P., & Pitman, R.K. (1999). Regional cerebral blood flow during script-driven imagery in childhood sexual abuse-related PTSD: a PET investigation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 575-584.

Siegel, A., Roeling, T.A.P., Gregg, T.R., & Kruk, M.R. (1999). Neuropharmacology of brain-stimulation-evoked aggression. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 23, 359-389.

Siegel, D.J. (1999). The developing mind: Toward a neurobiology of interpersonal experience. New York: Guilford Press.

Silverman, R.C., & Lieberman, A.F. (1999). Negative maternal attributions, projective identification, and the intergenerational transmission of violent relational patterns. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 9, 161-186.

Sirven, J.I., & Glasser, D.S. (1998). Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. Theoretic and clinical considerations. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsyhology, and Behavioral Neurology, 11, 225-235

Slade, A. (1987). The quality of attachment and symbolic play. Developmental Psychology, 23, 78-85.

Slade, A. (1994). Making meaning and making believe: Their role in the clinical processs. In A. Slade & D. Wolf (Eds.), Children at play: clinical and developmental approaches to meaning and representaion, (pp. 81-110). New York: Oxford University Press.

Snow, D. (2000). The emotional basis of linguistic and nonlinguistic intonation: implications for hemispheric specialization. Developmental Neuropsychology, 17, 1-28.

Solomon, J., & George, C. (1999). Attachment disorganization. New York: Guilford Press.

Southall, D.P., Plunkett, M.C.B., Banks, M.W., Falkov, A.F., & Samuels, M.P. (1997). Covert videorecordings of life-threatening child abuse: lessons for child protection. Pediatrics, 100, 735-760.

Southwick, S.M., Krystal, J.H., Morgan, A., Johnson, D., Nagy, L.M., Nicolaou, A., Heninger, G.R., & Charney, D.S. (1993). Abnormal noradrenergic function in posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 266-274.

Spangler, G., & Grossman, K. (1999). Individual and physiological correlates of attachment disorganization in infancy. In J. Solomon & C. George (Eds.), Attachment disorganization, (pp. 95-124). New York: Guilford Press.

Spence, S., Shapiro, D., & Zaidel, E. (1996). The role of the right hemisphere in the physiological and cognitive components of emotional processing. Psychophysiology, 33, 112-122.

Starkstein, S.E., & Robinson, R.G. 1997). Mechanism of disinhibition after brain lesions. Journal of Nervous and Mental disease, 185, 108-114.

Stoddard-Apter, S.L., Levin, B., & Siegel, A. (1983). A sympathoadrenal and cardiovascular correlate of aggressive behavior in the awake cat. Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, 8, 343-360.

Streissguth, A.P., Sampson, P.D., Carmichael Olson, H., Bookstein, F.L., Barr, H.M., Scott, M., Feldman, J., & Mirsky, A.F. (1994). Maternal drinking during pregnancy: attention and short-term memory in 14-year-old offspring- A longitudinal perspective study. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 18, 202-218.

Sturm, W., deSimone, A., Krause, B.J., Specht, K., Hesselmann, V., Radermacher, I., Herzog, H., Tellmann, L., Muller-Gartner, H.-W., & Willmes, K. (1999). Functional anatomy of intrinsic alertness: evidence for a fronto-parietal-thalamic-brainstem network in the right hemisphere. Neuropsychologia, 37, 797-805.

Sullivan, R.M., & Gratton, A. (1999). Lateralized effects of medial prefrontal cortex lesions on neuroendocrine and autonomic stress responses in rats. Journal of Neuroscience, 19, 2834-2840.

Sutker, P.B., Vasterling, J.J., Brailey, K., & Allain, A.N. Jr. (1995). Memory, attention, and executive deficits in POW survivors: Contributing biological and psychological factors. Neuropsychology, 9, 118-125.

Svensson, T.H. (1987). Peripheral, autonomic regulation of locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons in brain: Putative implications for psychiatry and psychopharmacology. Psychopharmacology, 92, 1-7.

Sweet, S.D., McGrath, P.J., & Symons, D. (1999). The roles of child reactivity and parenting context in infant pain response. Pain, 80, 655-661.

Talamini, L.M., Koch, T., Luiten, P.G.M., Koolhaas, J.M., & Korf, J. (1999). Interruptions of early cortical development affect limbic association areas and social behavior in rats; possible relevance for neurodevelopmental disorders. Brain Research, 847, 105-120.

Tan, S., Sagara, Y., Liu, Y., Maher, P., & Schubert, D. (1998). The regulation of reactive oxygen species production during programmed cell death. Journal of Cell Biology, 141, 1423-1432.

Tanaka, M., Tsuda, A., Tokoo, H., Yoshida, M., Ida, Y., & Nishimura, H. (1990). Involvement of the brain noradrenaline system in emotional changes caused by stress in rats. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 597, 159-174.

Taylor, G. (2000). Recent developments in alexithymia theory and research. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 45, 134-142.

Taylor, G.J., Parker, J.D.A., & Bagby, R.M. (1997). Disorders of affect regulation: Alexithymia in medical and psychiatric illness. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Taylor, G.J., Parker, J.D.A., & Bagby, R.M. (1999). Emotional intelligence and the emotional brain: points of convergence and implications for psychoanalysis. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 27, 339-354.

Teicher, M.H., Ito, Y., & Glod, C.A. (1996). Neurophysiological mechanisms of stress response in children. In C.R. Pfeffer (Ed.), Severe stress and mental disturbances in children, (pp. 59-84). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Terr, L.C. (1988). What happensd to early memories of trauma? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1, 96-104.

Thatcher, R.W. (1994). Cyclical cortical reorganization: Origins of human cognitive development. In G. Dawson & K.W. Fischer (Eds.), Human behavior and the developing brain, (pp. 232-266). New York: Guilford Press.

Tiihonen, J., Kuikka, J., Viinamaki, H., Lehtonen, J., & Partanen, J. (1995). Altered cerebral blood flow during hysterical paresthesia. Biological Psychiatry, 37, 134-135.

Timms, R.J. (1977). Cortical inhibition and facilitation of defense reaction. Journal of Physiology, 266, 98P-99P.

Travers, J.B., Dinardo, L.A., & Karimnamazi, H. (1997). Motor and premotor mechanism of licking. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 21, 631-647.

Trickett, P.K., & McBride-Chang, C. (1995). The developmental impact of different forms of child abuse and neglect. Developmental Review, 15, 311-337.

Tronick, E.Z., & Weinberg, M.K. (1997). Depressed mothers and infants: failure to form dyadic states of consciousness. In L. Murray & P.J. Cooper (Eds.), Postpartum depression in child development, (pp. 54-81). New York: Guilford Press.

Tucker, D.M. (1992). Developing emotions and cortical networks. In M. R. Gunnar & C.A. Nelson (Eds.), Minnesota symposium on child psychology. Vol. 24, Developmental behavioral neuroscience, (pp. 75-128). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Tucker, D. M., & Derryberry, D. (1994). Motivating the focus of attention. In P.M. Niedenthal & S. Kitayama, S., The heart’s eye: emotional influences in perception and attention, (pp. 167-196). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Tustin, F. (1981). Psychological birth and psychological catastrophe. In J. S. Grotstein (ed.), Do I dare disturb the universe: a memorial to W.R. Bion, (pp. 181-196). London: Karnac.

Uddo, M., Vasterling, J.J., Brailey, K., & Sutker, P.B. (1993). Memory and attention in combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 15, 43-52.

van der Hart, O., & Nijenhuis, E. (1995). Amnesia for traumtic experiences. Hypnosis, 4, 417-453.

van der Kolk, B.A. (1987). Psychological trauma. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

van der Kolk, B.A. (1996). The body keeps the score. Approaches to the psychobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder. In B.A. van der Kolk, A.C. McFarlane, & L. Weisaeth (Eds.), Traumatic stress: the effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society, (pp. 214-241). New York: Guilford Press.

van der Kolk, B.A. & Fisler, R.E. (1994). Childhood abuse and neglect and loss of self-regulation. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 58, 145-168.

van der Kolk, B., Hostetler, A., Heron, N., & Fisler, R. (1994). Trauma and the development of borderline personality disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 17, 715-730.

van der Kolk, B.A., McFarlane, A.C., & Weisaeth, L. (1996). Traumatic stress: the effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society. New York: Guilford Press.

van der Kolk, B.A., Perry, J.C., & Herman, J.L. (1991). Childhood origins of self-destructive behavior. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 1665-1671.

van Hoesen, G.W., Parvizi, J., & Chu, C.-C. (2000). Orbitofrontal cortex pathology and Alzheimer’s disease. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 243-251.

van Ijzendoorn, M.H., Schuengel, C., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J. (1999). Disorganized attachment in early childhood: Meta-analysis of precursors, concomitants, and sequelae. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 225-249.

Volkow, N.D., & Fowler, J.S. (2000). Addiction, a disease of compulsion and drive: involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 318-325.

Volkow, N.D., Wang, G-J., Overall, J.E., Hitzmann, R., Fowler, J.S., Pappas, N., Frecska, E., & Piscani, K. (1997). Reginal brain alcoholic response to larazepam in alcoholics during early and late alcohol detoxification. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental research, 21, 1278-1284.

Volkow, N.D., Wang, G-J., Fowler, J.S., Hitzemann, R., Angrist, B., Gatley, S.J., Logan, J., Ding, Y-S., & Pappas, N. (1999). Association of methylphenidate-induced craving with changes in right striato-orbitofrontal metabolism in cocaine abusers: implications in addiction. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 19-26.

Wang, S. (1997). Traumatic stress and attachment. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, Supplement, 640, 164-169.

Weintraub, S., & Mesulam, M.M. (1983). Developmental learning disabilities of the right hemisphere. Emotional, interpersonal, and cognitive components. Archives of Neurology, 40, 463-468.

Weinstock, M. (1997). Does prenatal stress impair coping and regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 21, 1-10.

Whalen, P.J., Rauch, S.L., Etcoff, N., McInerney, S.C., Lee, M.B., & Jenike, M.A. (1998). Masked presentations of emotional facial expressions modulate amygdala activity without explicit knowledge. Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 411-418.

Wheeler, R.E., Davidson, R.J., & Tomarken, A.J. (1993). Frontal brain asymmetry and emotional reactivity: A biological substrate of affective style. Psychophysiology, 30, 82-89.

Wiedemann, G., Pauli, P., Dengler, W., Lutzenberger, W., Birbaumer, N., & Buchkremer, G. (1999). Frontal brain asymmetry as a biological substrate of emotions in patients with panic disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 78-84.

Williams, M.T., Hennessey, M.B., & Davis, H.N. (1995). CRH administered to pregnant rats alters offspring behavior and morphology. Pharmacology, Biocehmistry & Behavior, 52, 161-167.

Winnicott, D.W. (1958). The capacity to be alone. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 39, 416-420.

Winnicott, D.W. (1960). The theory of the parent-infant relationship. In The maturational process and the facilitating envorment, (pp. 37-55). New York: International universities Press.

Wittling, W. (1997). The right hemisphere and the human stress response. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, Supplement, 640, 55-59.

Wittling, W., & Pfluger, M. (1990). Neuroendocrine hemisphere asymmetries: Salivary cortisol secretion during lateralized viewing of emotion-related and neutral films. Brain and Cognition, 14, 243-265.

Wittling, W. & Schweiger, E. (1993). Neuroendocrine brain asymmetry and physical complaints. Neuropsychologia, 31, 591-608.

Yasui, Y., Itoh, K., Kaneko, T., Shigemoto, R., & Mizuno, N. (1991). Topographical projections from the cerebral cortex to the nucleus of the solitary tract in the cat. Experimental Brain Research, 85, 75-84.

Yeo, R.A., Gangestad, S.W., Thoma, R.A., Shaw, P., & Repa, K. (1997a). Developmental instability and cerebral lateralization. Neuropsychology, 11, 552-561.

Yeo, R.A., Hodde-Vargas, J., Hendren, R.L., Vargas, L.A., Brooks, W.M., Ford, C.C., Gangestad, S.W., & Hart, B.L. (1997b). Brain abnormalities in schizophrenia-spectrum children: Implications for the etiology of adult schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, Neuroimaging, 76, 1-13.

Yeo, R.A., Hill, D., Campbell, R., Vigil, J., & Brooks, W.M. (2000). Developmental instability and working memory in children: a magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation. Developmental Neuropsychology, 17, 143-159.

Yoshino, A., Hovda, D.A., Kawamata, T., Katayama, Y., & Becker, D.P. (1991). Dynamic changes in local cerebral glucose utilization following cerebral concussion in rats: evidence of a hyper- and subsequent hypometabolic state. Brain Research, 561, 106-119.

Yuste, R., & Katz, L.C. (1991). Control of postsynaptic Ca2+ influx in developing neocortex by excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Neuron, 6, 333-344.

Zaidel, D.W., Esiri, M.M. & Beardsworth, E.D. (1998). Observations on the relationship between verbal explicit and implicit memory and density of neurons in the hippocampus. Neuropsychologia, 36, 1049-1062.

Zanarini, M.C., Williams, A.A., Lewis, R.E., Reich, R.B., Vera, S.C., Marino, M.F., Levin, A., Yong, L., & Frankenburg, F.R. (1997). Reported pathological childhood experiences associated with the development of borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1101-1106.

Zhang, L.X., Xing, G.Q., Levine, S., Post, R.M., & Smith, M.A. (1997). Maternal deprivation induces neuronal death. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 23, 1113.

Zhang, Y-U., Tang, J-S., Yuan, B., & Jia, H. (1997). Inhibitory effects of electrically evoked activation of ventrolateral orbital cortex on the tail-flick reflex are mediated by periaqueductal gray in rats. Pain, 72, 127-135.

zurück zu Teil 1


weitere Beiträge zum Thema Traumaforschung


[AGSP] [Aufgaben / Mitarbeiter] [Aktivitäten] [Veröffentlichungen] [Suchhilfen] [FORUM] [Magazin] [JG 2011 +] [JG 2010] [JG 2009] [JG 2008] [JG 2007] [JG 2006] [JG 2005] [JG 2004] [JG 2003] [JG 2002] [JG 2001] [JG 2000] [Sachgebiete] [Intern] [Buchbestellung] [Kontakte] [Impressum]


[Buchempfehlungen] [zu den Jahrgängen]







simyo - Einfach mobil telefonieren!







  -  Einfach preiswert drucken